## Table of content

First of all, thank you for spending your time on this template! I hope, it will be useful and help you to improve your knowledge of Spanish words.

This page will introduce you to basic principles utilised by the "Spanish Word Training System" and explain its design and learning approach implementation.

The template contains 5000 Most Popular Spanish Words split into 60+ categories based on the part of speech and topics, that allow you to activate and start learning multiple coherent words at a time. Also, it provides 5 types of word training filled with activated words based on the spaced repetition principle. More about that further 👇

# Basic Principles

## Active recall

Active recall is the process of remembering information. It is an efficient way of moving information from short-term to long-term memory so that you can easily draw on it again when you need it most, such as for an assessment or exam.

## Spaced Repetition

Spaced repetition is an evidence-based learning technique that is usually performed with flashcards. Newly introduced and more difficult flashcards are shown more frequently, while older and less difficult flashcards are shown less frequently in order to exploit the psychological spacing effect.

You can find more about the spaced repetition, active recall and how the learning works in general in nice and explicit interactive comix pages made by Nicky Case and translated to 9 different languages: https://ncase.me/remember/

# Template implementation

The template is built upon two pillars. The training pages provide tools to challenge your memory and utilise active recall with deliberately spaced intervals thanks to underlying algorithms. The second pillar is the Flashcards stored by the Words database and grouped into meaningful chunks by the Groups database.

## Training

The learning cycle includes 5 steps:

### 1. Initial learning (Flashcards)

In this step, you have a chance to read the word along with its translation and see the mnemonic image. By clicking on the word card, you can see the usage example and listen to the pronunciation. See more about the word page somewhere around 😉

After you introduce yourself with flashcards, you need to drag&drop them into one of two sections:

• "Easy" means that the word seems to be easy to memorise and you were sure about its meaning, spelling etc. After the flashcards are dropped into this section, their repetition interval will be increased 2 times. So, for example, if it was your 4th correct repetition, the repetition interval will be increased from 4 days to 8 days and next time it will show after more than a week. See the Repetition section to find more.
• The "Hard" section is designated for words that you're struggling with. Marking the word as "hard" is equal to giving the wrong answer on any other exercise: the learning interval will be decreased by 2, the number of incorrect answers
• Drag&Drop demo screencast

### 2. Hot&Cold Words

On this step, you are challenged to input the word by looking at its translation and small image thumbnail (which can be opened in full view though)

While typing the according table cell will get one of the following states:

⚠️ Use lower case only — this message is shown when you hit the template's limitation. All words and translations are typed by lower case letters, which are expected by used Notion formulas. Simply change your letters to have a lower case to fix that error:

I love pizzai love pizza

❄️ - you've typed the wrong letters (typed: abc, actual word: correct)

🔥 - the letters you input are correct but does not fully match the word yet (typed: corr, actual word: correct)

🔙 - you typed too many letters (typed: toomanyletters, word: correct)

✅ - congratulations, the answer is correct!

• Input word demo screencast

After you've dealt with all given words and input your answers, you need to drag them into a "validation" zone, that contains a sophisticated set of rules and formulas that will do the magic: it will validate the answers, write them down into a words entities and set up the next repetition date based on success rate and previous learning history.

• Drag&Drop demo screencast

### 3. Hot&Cold Translation

This step is similar to the previous one but requires the translation whereas the word itself is given. The number of possible states is the same as in Hot&Cold Words exercise.

Some translations may include more than one word or even multiple possible translations. For example, the word 'botella' may be translated either as 'bottle' or 'flask' and has Translation property equal to bottle, flask. Luckily, you don't have to input both of these words, so any of them will be considered as correct answer.

bot → 🔥

bottle → ✅

abcd → ❄️

fla → 🔥

flask → ✅

Also, you can put any text inside brackets and it will be ignored while checking your answer. Let's say, the Translation property contains the city (feminine). Then the simple city will be a correct answer. Another example: to go (or put) to bed which expects the to go to bed as a correct answer (notice that the brackets and extra spaces were removed).

### 4. Guessing Words

This task is a more complex version of the 2. Hot&Cold Words. Here you need to specify the correct word without hot/cold prompts. You will see either ❌ or ✅ for wrong and correct answer respectively.

### 5. Translation Exam

The last task in a series. You need to input the word translation and can get one of two possible results: ❌ for wrong or ✅ for a correct answer.

### Review

This page will be shown at the end of the training cycle. Here you can see your overall statistic, the words that were trained today and the upcoming flashcards, which will be shown tomorrow.

• Review page screenshot

## Repetition

The spaced repetition algorithm is one of the coolest features of this template! Unlike any other templates that implement the spaced repetition, it does not rely on manual user interaction. That is, you won't have to manually input the next repetition date or explicitly check your answers as wrong or correct and do some math - everything works under the hood, thanks to the forcing filter technic.

Whenever you give the right answer and drop the word entity into the validation zone (see Drag&Drop demo) it automatically computes the date of the next repetition based on the following formula:

$D_n = D_t + max((N_c - N_w - 1)^2, 1)$﻿

$D_n -$﻿ Date of the Next repetition

$D_t -$﻿ Today

$N_c -$﻿ Number of Correct answers

$N_w -$﻿Number of Wrong answers

$max -$﻿Function that returns the biggest of given numbers

For example, if the word already had 5 correct and 3 wrong answers (given during the previous exercise sessions) and today it gets another correct answer, then the next repetition will be assigned to the 8th day from now: $(5 + 1 - 3)^2 = 8$﻿

This formula is used for each type of exercise individually, which means that if you easily give the word translation, but struggle with remembering the word itself, then the translation exercise will have smaller intervals. The most difficult words will be shown more often.

There is no maximum interval limit (technically there is a limit around 1.8e+308 days, which is bigger than the age of the Universe) so all words will be repeated with the increasing intervals, but never will be entirely disabled.

## Databases

### Words

• Word Page Example

Each word consist of a separate page (Notion database item) that contains most of the information necessary for efficient learning and comprehension. They have an attached image which purpose is to provide the mnemonics to empower your memory by creating more links in your brain. You can replace the image with your own that brings you the strongest association. The audio file and the quoted sentence give you the pronunciation and usage examples. Also, they have a set of links to dictionaries with the word definition, so you will always be just one click away from the most relevant and trusted dictionaries (Reverso.net, Cambridge.org and WordReference.com).

When the number of right answers exceeds the number of wrong answers by 10 or more ( $N_c - N_w > 10$﻿), the word will be marked with a Learned checkmark. That won't exclude it from the following repetitions or affect the learning process in any other way, but it will change the related group statistic and progress bar state.

### Groups

• Group Page Example

The Correct answers rate property represents the fraction of correct answers compared to the total amount of answers given to words in the current group.

The Progress represents the amount of learned and active ("half-way" learned) words included in a given group. Every word that has been trained at least once is considered as 0.5 points, the word, marked as Learned: ✅ gives one full point. Hence, if the group has 2 pristine words, 4 fully learned words (that have more than 10 right answers) and 3 words being practiced a few times (active), it will result in $(2*0 + 4*1 + 3*.5) / (2 + 4 + 3) = 0.61$﻿ → ■■■□□ 61%